A little over a year after his marriage, on 10 July 1559, Francis became king at age 15 upon the death Henry II, who had been killed in a jousting accident. In the cities of Tours and Orléans, they received money and weapons from the conspirators. [29] The Maréchal de Brissac, who displayed some unwillingness to evacuate Piedmont, was asked to change his behaviour and accelerate the withdrawal. With the secret support of the two Princes of the Blood, Condé and Navarre, a political-military organisation gradually developed. journey. She was tall for her age and eloquent, and Francis was unusually short and stuttered. Their father Claude, Duke of Guise, was the son of René II, Duke of Lorraine, who had been accorded French citizenship by King Francis I, his military companion. Francis II and Mary Stuart had to withdraw French troops and stop displaying England's arms. A secret clause signed by the queen provided that Scotland would become part of France if the royal couple did not have children. [35][36] It also had to reach an agreement with Spain about the prisoners of war held by both sides. The oldest known was Chlodio. The political decisions of the government were also contested. In foreign policy, Francis II continued peace efforts Henry II had begun with the signing of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis in April 1559, which ended 40 years of war between France and the Habsburg empire. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Major-Rulers-of-France-1804872, Pippin III, the Short (mayor of the palace), Charlemagne (Charles I; king of the Franks), Charles II, the Bald (king of the West Franks), Charles III, the Fat (king of the East Franks). When Francis II and Mary Stuart were presented with the Treaty of Edinburgh, they were outraged and refused to sign it; they also challenged the legitimacy of the Scottish parliament's decision.[45]. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. [11] They also delayed paying military personnel, the king's officials, and court suppliers. Many rioters had the support of local notables. With a commitment to worthy worship, faithful catechesis, and generous service to those in need, St. Louis remains a place of profound encounter with Christ in North Austin. It was a palace revolution. The king, widely known as Rama X, planned an even bigger party — but 119 members of his entourage were forced to return to Thailand amid fears they … [23] During the summer, the civil disobedience movement gained intensity; several cities in southern France were in revolt.[24][25]. France has better palaces and all these monuments and frankly, we need more parades in Paris. Border disputes renewed tensions between the two nations, but after months of protests Francis II finally obtained these territories. Corrections? On 23 December 1560, Francis II's body was interred in the Basilica of St Denis by the Prince of La Roche-sur-Yon. They reduced the size of the army, and many soldiers became unemployed. The main areas of opposition spanned a crescent-shaped territory from Anjou to Dauphiné and included the regions of Poitou, Guyenne, Périgord, Languedoc, and Provence. Frustrations mounted at court, as the cutbacks spared the regiments under the control of the Guises and their friends. But on 17 March, two hundred men tried to storm one of the city gates at the foot of the castle. Queen Elizabeth I of England was still offended that Francis II and Mary Stuart had put on their coat of arms those of England, thus proclaiming Mary's claims on the throne of England. Afraid to see gallicanism slip out of his control, the Pope eventually agreed to a general council, but rejected the attendance of any Protestant, as demanded by the French government. Omissions? [46] The question of whether his marriage was consummated or not remains unanswered. Although the royal numbering starts with Louis, he was not a king of … Ambroise Paré, the royal surgeon, considered performing a trepanation. During the spring of 1560, the kingdom experienced the first major events of iconoclasm in Provence. Armed gangs from Languedoc went to Provence and Dauphiné, which Paul de Mouvans and Charles de Montbrun were trying respectively to enlist into the insurrection. [43][44] When the Bishop of Valence and Charles de La Rochefoucault, sieur of Randan, sent by the king to negotiate, arrived in Scotland, they were treated almost like prisoners. [18], In April 1560, the Queen Mother had Michel de l'Hôpital named Lord Chancellor of France. By the end of 1559, France had regained control of Scotland.[41]. Determined to stop the persecution and have Protestantism officially recognised, a group of noblemen planned the Amboise conspiracy to overthrow the government and give power to the Princes of the Blood, who supported the new religion. Tadej Pogacar (UAE Team Emirates) sailed in to claim the overall victory in the 2020 Tour de France on the final stage to Paris. [13] The conspirators also most likely had the secret support of Louis, Prince of Condé, the ambitious younger brother of King Antoine of Navarre. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death in 1560. Quickly repelled by the Duke of Guise, these rebels were unmercifully pursued. [10] The main criticism against the Guises was that they were taking advantage of the king's youth to wield power arbitrarily. Therefore, according to the Treaty of Troyes, with the death of Charles VI, little Henry became King of France. Intermediates between Catholicism and Protestantism, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Provisional Government of the French Republic, Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Francis_II_of_France&oldid=999995826, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Francis II is one of the main characters on the CW show. The 2020 Tour de France sets off from Nice and ends 23 days later in the country's capital of Paris. King of 2 Miles in France 2020 03/12/2020 - 20H00: The CSA Tir Canjuers in agreement with the Camp authorities maintains the organization of the King of 1 & 2 Miles in France scheduled for May 2020. Encouraged by the government's leniency, Protestants continued to congregate for religious services. The King of 2 Miles in France was held on April 20-22, 2019 at Camp de Canjuers in Southern France. Francis has tended to appears briefly on films about Mary, Queen of Scots. [12] On 23 December 1559, the counsellor-clerk Anne du Bourg, magistrate at the Parlement of Paris, which had contested the repression, was publicly executed in Paris at the Place de Grève. [40] The queen's mother, Marie of Guise, was already regent for Scotland. On 21 September 1559, Francis II was crowned king in Reims by his uncle Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death in 1560.. Enter Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou, the rightful pretender to the French throne. From all parts of the kingdom, troops were on their way to the Château d'Amboise, where the court was in residence. [22] This decision led to the reopening of the Council of Trent. The Guises faced a disastrous financial situation. At the new king's suggestion, he left the court for his estates to get some rest. St. Louis Updates. Alfonsothen asserted his claim to be both Hea… He learned dancing from Virgilio Bracesco and fencing from Hector of Mantua. At the expense of its influence in Europe, France continued to restore lands conquered over the previous 40 years. Some suspected Protestants of having poisoned the king, a view held by Catholics as the tensions between them and Protestants were on the rise, but this has not been proven. Hotels near Church of Saint Louis, King of France: (0.05 mi) Celeste St Paul (0.21 mi) DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel St Paul Downtown (0.35 mi) The Saint Paul Hotel (0.37 mi) Hotel 340 (0.51 mi) Hyatt Place St Paul / Downtown; View all hotels near Church of Saint Louis, King of France on Tripadvisor [17] An edict signed at Romorantin in May 1560 was the beginning of the right to freedom of conscience in France. Merovingian Dynasty (428–751) The name of France comes from the Germanic tribe known as the Franks.The Merovingian kings began as chieftains. [33][34], Along with restitution of territories, the government of Francis II had to negotiate, pay, or claim compensations for people whose properties were taken or destroyed during the war. Mary had been crowned Queen of Scotland in Stirling Castle on 9 September 1543 at the age of nine months following the death of her father James V. Mary was a granddaughter of Claude, Duke of Guise, a very influential figure at the court of France. Royal arms of Francis, Dauphin and King consort of Scots, Royal arms of Mary, Queen of Scots, impaled with those of Francis, Royal arms of Mary, Queen of Scots, Queen consort of France, Royal arms of Mary, Queen of Scots, Queen dowager of France. Even though they did not want to split from Rome, the Pope's opposition led them to threaten a national council if he did not agree.[20]. Protestants elected local leaders, raised money, bought weapons, and formed militias. In religion, the Guises increased the repression of Protestantism started by King Henry II. Francis II (French: François II; 19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was King of France from 1559 to 1560. Tour de France king of the mountains predictions ... 27 Aug 2020 - 2:14 PM . France (French: ), officially the French Republic (French: République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The Guises left the court, while Mary Stuart, Francis II's widow, returned to Scotland. Highly critical of the Pope, the Assembly of Notables also decided to gather France's bishops to obtain their consent for a national council. [26] By autumn, order was slowly restored. Nothing seemed to stand in the way of French control of Scotland apart from English support for the Scottish nobles. Due to growing discontent, the government tried conciliation. [19] Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, was himself open to church reform. Convinced that the Prince of Condé was responsible for the uprising, the king summoned him to court and had him arrested on 31 October 1560. Under pressure from the Queen Mother, the Guises agreed to consult with the notables: this led to a meeting of the Assembly of Notables at Fontainebleau from 21 to 26 August. Some were even won over to the new religion. The rise of the House of Guise worked to the detriment of its old rival, Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France. Many noblemen were still prisoners and unable to pay their ransom. Historical records matching Henry I, king of France Each week we will send you an email update with a … Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Over the following days disorientated troops, mostly peasants, were arrested one by one in and around the forest of Amboise. His mother, Catherine de' Medici, agreed to this delegation. Interrogation of prisoners clearly placed him as the conspiracy's beneficiary, but the word of commoners did not count against that of a Prince of the Blood. The king's reaction was fierce and determined: he mobilised his troops, sent the army to the rioting areas, and ordered governors to return to their positions. Irrefutable written proof was needed to accuse him. People ... April 17, 2020: View Complete Profile. Even after a reciprocal release compromise was signed, Spain was not eager to lose its prisoners.[37][38][39]. The Pope opposed this. [2], On 24 April 1558, Francis and Mary married in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. On the Spanish side, King Philip II showed some unwillingness to return four locations in the northeast of the kingdom as required by the treaty. King Henry II, his father, arranged a remarkable betrothal for his son to Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Châtillon agreement of 27 January 1548, when Francis was only four years old. An opposition movement led by the Prince of the Blood Antoine of Navarre, King of Navarre, contested their power. After decades of wars against the House of Habsburg, the public debt stood at 48 million livres, while the king had only 12 million livres in annual income. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The opposition was led by two Princes of the Blood who contested their power and their decisions as rulers. The table provides a list of the major rulers of France. The monarchy was abolished on September 21, 1792; later Louis and his queen consort, Marie-Antoinette, were guillotined on charges of counterrevolution. It was a union that could have given the future kings of France the throne of Scotland and also a claim to the throne of England through Mary's great-grandfather, King Henry VII of England. Under the influence of Catherine de Médicis and the members of the royal council, the government tried to ease tensions with a policy of conciliation. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [42] In January 1560, the English fleet blockaded the port of Leith, which French troops had turned into a military base. [1] Francis was at first raised at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. On 8 March 1560, the king signed an edict granting general amnesty to Protestants. During its long history, France has gone through numerous types of government. In other words, if the French throne were restored, this guy would become King Louis XX of France… The 3,470-kilometre route remains … Francis was succeeded by two of his brothers in turn, both of whom were also unable to reduce tensions between Protestants and Catholics. The crown was so heavy that nobles had to hold it in place for him. Its outcome was determined as early as 15 March when Jacques, Duke of Nemours, arrested some of the primary conspirators. Louis XVI, the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. However, Antoine failed to prevail against the Guises when he came to court. This was the first easing of religious persecution since Henry II's reign. On the first day of his reign, Francis II instructed his four ministers to take orders from his mother, but since she was still in mourning for her husband, she directed them to the House of Guise. As soon as the day after the death of the king, he was present at the council meeting and was also at the coronation. The world has changed dramatically since the route of the 2020 Tour de France was unveiled last October. Cyclists are given just two rest days during the taxing 3,470 km (2,156 mi.) The climax came during the night of 4 and 5 September, when Protestant militias tried to take over Lyon. Public assemblies were still prohibited, but the government released all religious prisoners. Once the marriage agreement was formally ratified, the six-year-old Mary was sent to France to be raised at court until the marriage. Alfonso was at that time the dauphin (using "Duke of Bourbon" as title of pretence) according to those who supported the claim of his father, Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia to the French throne. To their adversaries, they were merely ambitious foreigners from Lorraine. When Francis II died, France withdrew from Scotland, Brazil, Corsica, Tuscany, Savoy and most of Piedmont. Henry II said, "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time". Finally, Valenza, which Brissac was grumbling about releasing, was to be returned to the Spanish Duchy of Milan. The government's conciliation policy was intended to ease tensions, but had the opposite effect. Francis, Duke of Guise, was one of the most famous military commanders in the royal army, and the Cardinal of Lorraine had participated in the most important negotiations and matters of the kingdom. Common soldiers were consigned to use as rowers on the royal galleys. [5] But since he was young, inexperienced, and in fragile health, he delegated his power to his wife's uncles from the noble House of Guise: Francis, Duke of Guise, and Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. The Cathedral-Basilica of St. Louis King of France is the oldest Catholic cathedral in continual use in the United States. Diane de Poitiers, the mistress of the previous king, was asked not to appear at court. Francis II and Mary Stuart sent troops right away. Since he was still free, Condé left the court to meet his brother Antoine in the south-west. A gathering of the Estates General was suggested, but, fearing that they would be evicted due to their unpopularity, the Guises strongly opposed this. Louis, Prince of Condé, who was jailed and awaiting execution, was freed after some negotiations with Catherine de Médici. [14] But it was too late; the conspiracy was already under way. Genealogy for Henry I of France, King of France (1009 - 1060) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. Until the end of his reign, the French kingdom was paralysed by local revolts. Francis II had a brief reign. Historians agree that Francis II was fragile, both physically and psychologically, and his frail health led to his early death. Francis II, aware of the kingdom's weaknesses, reassured Spain of its intention to fulfill the treaty just signed. From the beginning of their regency, the Guises faced deep discontent throughout the kingdom. Date [27][28], When Henry II died, the restitution of these territories was well under way. The standing figure of St Louis, King Louis IX of France (1214-1270) holds a scepter in one hand and a crown of thorns in the other. Some theorists, such as François Hotman, believed that the law entitled the latter to be the king's senior adviser since he was a descendant of Louis IX of France and thus an heir to the throne if the House of Valois then in power disappeared. As a result of the marriage, Francis became King Consort in Scotland until his death. The Princes of the Blood and the Constable were asked to attend and to resume their roles in the king's council. An ecumenical council for the church of France was officially proposed: instead of gaining the consent of Pope Pius IV, the cardinal and the Queen Mother called for a general council in which Christians of all opinions and from all over Europe would meet to reform the religion. More than a hundred were executed, some even hanged from the ramparts of the castle. On 6 July 1560, they signed the Treaty of Edinburgh, which ended French occupation of Scotland. He reacted by becoming more authoritarian. ‎ Didier Lonassac ‎ to Groupe de KING of 1 MILE in Caylus - France September 8, 2019 Dans un soucis d’uniformisation des épreuves , pour l’année 2020, le règlement de notre King of 1 Mile va être calqué sur celui de Canjuers: Later he supported the repression of the Amboise conspiracy of 1560, notably by going to the Parlement to communicate to its members the measures taken by the king. Louis Alphonse was born in Madrid, the second son of Alfonso de Borbón, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz, and of his wife María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco, eldest granddaughter of Francisco Franco. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian… Tour de France 2020: Tadej Pogacar is the youngest winner in 112 years. The king was at first inclined to leniency. Missio 2020 Prospectus: For over sixty-five years, we have been building and sustaining the legacy of St. Louis King of France Catholic Church & School. 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